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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  1. Manuscript Submission

4.1 Templates

Papers should be submitted in MS-word, Times New Roman font and 1.5 point line spacing, with margins of 2.5 cm at top, bottom, and sides of each page. Tables and figures  could  be  integrated in  the text  or  placed  at  the  end  of  the  manuscript following the reference section, each at a separate page. For preparation of tables and figures, refer Section 6. Equations should be editable in the document.


4.2 Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter throughout the document.


4.3 Footnotes

Footnotes can be used to provide additional information. Table footnotes should be indicated by superscript lower-case letter(s) (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body. Footnotes should also be well defined and placed at the end of each respective table. The same could be made to figure legends and authors of the manuscript.


4.4 Scientific style

Authors are encouraged always to use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (SI units). Genus and species names should be italicized.


4.5 Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures and tables that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copy right owner(s), and to include evidence(s) that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence(s) will be assumed to originate from the authors, and the authors are responsible for it.


4.6 Ethical responsibility

The journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. All authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results, which could damage trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the scientific arena. Read more about maintaining integrity of scientific research and rules of good scientific practices.


4.7 Manuscript preparation

The paper should be arranged in the following order: title page [title, author(s) and author address(s) and affiliation(s)]; abstract with keywords; running title; text; reference list; tables, and graphs or illustrations (figures).


Title page

This section should include name(s) of author(s); affiliation(s) and address(s) of author(s) with email address of the corresponding author; and a concise and informative title (not more than 20 words).



Please provide an abstract of not more than 380 words. The abstract should contain rationale of the study, major objectives, brief methodology, major findings, conclusions and recommendations. It should not contain any undefined abbreviation(s) and reference(s).



Please provide 6-9 keywords which could be used for indexing of the article. Running title:  This is a shortened version of the title that briefly highlights the article.  Suggested  to  be  very precise  and  short  compared  with  the  title  of  the manuscript, not exceeding 10-12 words.


 Main text of the article

The  main  text  of  the  manuscript  consists  of  the  following  major  sections  or headings: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and references. Besides, conclusions and recommendations and acknowledgements parts can be included. Results and discussion can be written either together or separately.



The introduction section describes the principal objectives of the investigation and provides a brief review of the relevant literatures on the subject. In general, the introduction has to contain background, statement of the problem, brief review of work done on the topic, justification or rationale for the study, and objective(s) of the study.


 Materials and methods

This  section  provides  a  concise  description  of  the  procedures  followed  and materials used to obtain the results. In case a new methodology is developed by the author or some one’s methodology is modified and used, detail procedures (for new) and the modification made (for modified) should be described. In case some one’s methodology is fully used, there is no need to describe in detail but source should be acknowledged. It has to be written in a paragraph form not in a bullet form. It can contain description of the study area/site/condition, description of the experimental materials, description of the treatments and experimental design/sampling design, experimental procedures, data collection (the methods, instruments and units of measurement)  and  data  analysis  (analytical  methods,  statistical  analysis  and software used).



Results can be presented separately or together with the discussion section.  Present and describe the results or findings obtained with logical flow under this section.  If applicable, describe the main statistically significant findings of the results. No interpretations, implications and reasoning are given here, if the author (s) wishes/wish to provide the results and discussion under separate headings.



This section describes interpretation, reasoning and implications of the results obtained. It should include strong comparison of results with other related previous studies.


 Conclusion and Recommendation

Under this section, contributions of the present study are briefly described and recommendations for further study are made.



People who and institutions that have supported the research technically, materially and financially are credited here.


References Citations

All  sources  in  the  reference  list  should  be  cited  in  the  text  and  vice  versa.

References must be cited in the text in the following form:

              …… (King, 1952; Abebe and Olana, 1990; Uloro et al., 1995).

 The work of Assefa (1985) showed that …..

 In agreement with the result of this study, Adkins et al. (2018) reported

      that ….

Conventionally, Ethiopian names are not reversed, but authors have the options to use the more standardized format (Megenasa, 1982) or stick to their traditional appellation (e.g. Tessema Megenasa or Tessema). But, to align with scientific standards and the journal also to be referred by the international community, the former citation “Megenasa, 1982” is more appropriate.

When several in-text references occur at the same point, give them in chronological order from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons. If the publication by different authors is made in the same year, sequence alphabetically by author names. For example,

 Several previous studies also reported the importance of …. (Azerefegn et al., 2001; Assefa and Ahmed, 2002; Dejene et al., 2007; Johnson et al.,  2007; Taye and Tana, 2010; Chala et al., 2016).

Give only the first author’s name followed by et al. (italics) and the year of publication for three or more authors of a referred material. For example,   Terefe et al. (2019) or (Terefe et al., 2019).

In case multiple works by the same author (or group of authors) in the same year are referred, put a, b, c, etc. after the year. The sequence is preferably determined by the sequence of publication, but if this cannot be determined, order alphabetically by article title. For example,

 … (Seid, 2019a, 2019b) or …. (Seid et al., 2018a, 2018b) or … (Girma et al., 2018b; Seid, 2019a) or …

If an organization is referred as an author and the organization’s name occurs several times in the document, a shortened form may be created for the in-text reference by using an abbreviation. For clarity, the abbreviation appears as the initial element in the end reference, within brackets. For example, in the text,

 … [Central Statistical Agency (CSA), 2018] …. First


 … (CSA, 2018) …. In the next time throughout the


 Reference list

Ensure that all references cited in the text are listed in the references section, and vice versa. The order of referencing could be made in alphabetical order. Alphabetical sequence is determined by the first author’s surname and then, if necessary, by letter-by-letter alphabetical sequencing determined by the initials of the first author and the beginning letters of any subsequent authors’ surnames. The names of all authors, including initials, should be provided. Order references by the same author(s) by year in ascending order.

If there are several items with the same first author, alone and/or with co-authors, present items by a single author before items with co-authors, regardless of title. In such a grouping, give the multi-author publications in alphabetical order by the second author’s surname, regardless of the number of authors.

When initials have been used for an organization as the in-text reference, order the reference by the full name, not the initials – so that in the list, CSA (Central Statistical Agency.

 Details of preparation of reference list are given in the following examples.

 Journal articles:

 Habtu Assefa, van den Bosch F, Zadoks JC. 1995. Focus expansion of bean rust in cultivar mixtures. Plant Pathology, 44:503-509.

Jibat M, Terefe H, Derso E. 2018. Integrated management of bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Southwestern

Ethiopia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 51(15-16): 834-

  1. Article published online only or online ahead of placement in an issue:

Aragaw G, Chala A, Terefe H. 2019. Spatial distribution and association of factors influencing sorghum anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) epidemics in Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Pest Management, https://doi: 10.1080/09670874.2019.1668075.

 Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: Observational study. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119.  Accessed on 31 May 2005.

 Organizations as authors:

IAR (Institute of Agricultural Research). 1991. Research on Haricot Bean in Ethiopia.  Proceedings of a National Workshop.  1-3  October 1990.  Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: IAR. 114 pp.

CSA (Central Statistics Agency). 2017. The federal democratic republic of Ethiopia central statistical agency agricultural sample survey 2016/17. Report on area and production of major crops. Statistical Bulletin, 584. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: CSA. 57pp.

 Book or book chapter:

           Agrios GN. 2005. Plant pathology. 5th ed. New York, Academic Press. Pp.


                       Luckmann WH, Metcalf RL. 1982. The pest management concept. Pp. 1-31.

                    In: Metclaf RL, Luckmann WH (eds.), Introduction to insect pest management, 2nd ed. New York, John Wiley and Sons.

 Edited book:

Leeper FJ, Vederas JC, editors. 2000. Biosynthesis: polyketides and vitamins. New York, Springer. Pp. xx.

Leeper FJ, editor. 2000. Biosynthesis: polyketides and vitamins. New York, Springer. Pp. xx.


 Proceedings and paper in proceedings:

 Tsedeke Abate, editor. 1985. A review of crop protection research in Ethiopia, proceedings of the conference held on 4-7 February 1985. Institute of Agricultural Research: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp 685.

  • Fernández-Aparicio M, Rubiales D. 2007. Beneficial effects of intercrops with oat in reduction of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) infection in faba bean in an organic farming system. Pp. 45-46. In: Østergárd H, Backes G, Kovács G (eds.), Varietal characteristics of cereals in different growing systems with special emphasis on below ground traits. Proceedings of the COST SUSVAR Workshop. 29 May – 01 June 2007, Velence, Hungary.


 Mesfin T. 1982. Studies on sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Dipt: Muscidae) with special reference to its biology and control measures. MSc Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 85pp.

Sultan   MY.   2018.   Distribution,   population   structure   and   integrated management of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris) on chickpea in Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation. Haramaya University, Ethiopia. 183pp.





 Publications from websites (URLs):

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). 2000. Crop and Food Supply

Assessment Mission to Ethiopia. FAOIWFP, Rome. http://www. fao.or~/GIE WS. Accessed on 21 July 2009.

 Hawthorne WA, Bretag T, Raynes M, Davidson JA, Kimber RBE, Nikandrow A, Matthews P, Paull JG. 2004. Faba bean disease management strategy for southern region GRDC 2004. Pulse Australia. www.sardi.sa.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file. Accessed on 27 November 2014.



Reference list for report(s) could be made as format for a book reference with the institution or organization in place of the publisher. Include the report series and number, if available.

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88- 228622.



You may refer a material other than the aforementioned lists. During this time, you may use other standards in the author guidelines of advanced journals related to plant protection.


  1. Nomenclature

All common names of organisms should be qualified at the first mention by the full Latin name and authority. Pesticides should be referred to by their common names. However, the trade name of the pesticide should be indicated at first mention in bracket with the first letter capitalized. For example, the insect growth regulator novaluron (Rimon 10% EC) was applied…



  1. Tables and figures

These must be relevant to the article and referred in the text. Tables should present new information rather than merely duplicating what is reported in the main text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without referring back the text. Tables should be submitted as editable text, not image.  Each table should have a descriptive caption and each column an appropriate heading.  Tables should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. Use Arabic (1, 2, 3 …) numbering instead of Roman (I, II, III …) numerals for tables.

Figure captions should be descriptive enough to understand the content by the reader without cross reference the main text. Figures should be of high quality that could be saved in either format (TIFF, JPEG, PS or EPS). If there are several related photographs or drawings or illustrations, assemble them into a composite figure, and label each component as A, B, C, etc. Number the figures according to their sequence in the text using Arabic numerals.